Citric acid is a naturally occurring fruit acid, produced commercially by microbial fermentation of a carbohydrate substrate. Citric acid is the most widely used organic acid and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical applications.
Citric acid monohydrate occurs as colourless crystals or as white, crystalline powder with a strongly acidic taste. It is efflorescent in dry air, very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 %) and sparingly soluble in ether.
Citric acid monohydrate is non-toxic and has a low reactivity. It is chemically stable if stored at ambient temperatures. Citric acid monohydrate is fully biodegradable and can be disposed of with regular waste or sewage.